Thursday, August 27, 2020

Why is Pakistan counted as underdeveloped?

For what reason is Pakistan considered immature? At the present time, Rs. 52,941 is the obligation which is on the shoulders of every single Pakistan, where absolute outer and inward obligation Pakistan today responsible is Rupees Nine trillion. Where as in the mid-nineties, a similar figure was Rupees 30,000 which was to be borne by every Pakistani resident. The administration of PM Nawaz Shareef concocted an activity of Qarz Utaro Scheme which some way or another gave a calming pad to the obligation overhauling heaps. At this moment there is an absolute money related division in the nation. In these exacerbating circumstances, it is again said that national treasury is confronting an extra weight of Rupees 14 billion because of 12 percent expansion in military annuities in 2007-2008â [3]â . On the opposite side of the coin, advanced look is giving a lot of critical and miserable portrayal as the absolute outside obligation is probably going to take off by more than 43 percent throughout the following five years, to about $73 billion of every 2015-16 from about $50.76 billion early this yearâ [4]â . In spite of the fact that the lack of ability and weakness of various nations to utilize the gave outer gracefully as far as help or obligation, it is additionally credited to numerous other trademark factors, the inadequate and scant absorptive skill is named as the dependable guideline relevant in numerous UDCs as a restriction on the efficient and capable usage of outside assets. The typical obligation pointers which are regularly drilled in Pakistan are: Obligation : GNP proportion Obligation : Debt Service Liability Obligation : Foreign Exchange Earnings Section II Writing REVIEW (Ashfaq, 2005) in his exploration (Aid Effectiveness, Debt Capacity and Debt Management in the Economy of Pakistan) talks about that discrete perspectives are winning concerning the helpfulness of outer help to the UDCs. The same number of the analysts and financial specialist state that guide and obligation is a lot of helpful in decreasing the fiscal full back and blockage to expansion of many creating nations like Pakistan, regardless of the pith of taking help is fulfilled or not (for instance Cassen 1994, G. Papanek 1972, and so forth). The challengers pronounce that outside help either as far as help or obligation consistently caused terrible effects on the development of the beneficiary nation. Various gives a moderate purpose of perspectives on a similar discussion. The affiliation connecting outer obligation and financial heightening has been watched extensively lately. These examinations have for the most part centered around the damaging impact of a countrys obligation ove rhang which implies the expansion of a store of risk so heavy as to threaten the countrys capacity to take care of its point of reference advance. The subject of the examination is to perceive how and how much the outside help has and obligation influenced the economy. It is to examine the outside help and assets regarding its dynamic and productive job in the economy and as a scaffold of development and development or the other way around. The principle thought is to check and gauge the viability of outside air and outer obligation in the nation and the scientist look to decide if further assets connected with outside help have in purpose of reality got an insurgency the economy or the circumstance is totally different of what it ought to be. The exploration will likewise examine the situation of obligation blunder on Pakistan, giving extraordinary significance given on Pakistans skill paying off debtors overhauling and its retirement; in the light of serious issues in the red administration works on making most exceedingly awful financial state of the nation. ( Hayat et al, 2010) examine in their exploration (External obligation and Economic Growth: Empirical proof from Pakistan) of the well established reality to everybody that Pakistan detests a decent notoriety for help and outside obligation. It has practically unmatchable observers of huge monetary help from about each piece of the globe. He further contends that Since Pakistans development of world guide; it is confronting essential issues in parity of installments shortage. To fund this parity of installments shortfall and loses, Pakistan is vigorously depending on outer obligation. World Bank grouped Pakistan as seriously obligated nation of South Asia in 2001.Even however, Pakistan shows a mushroom development in its economy within the sight of genuine monetary and furthest extent of political in-dependability. In spite of the fact that it likewise indicated fluctuation with the progression of time yet the circumstance right now is more terrible where the development pace of GDP is simply 2% which was 7% in 2007. The exceptional supply of outer obligation expand by a gigantic aggregate of Rupees 1095.1 billion in FY09, enlisting a development of 36.1 percent against 28.9 percent in FY08. To the extent obligation is connected, International Monetary Fund (IMF) obligation further damager the condition. The ascent under water load of IMF by US$ 3.8 billion was the main consideration for ascend in absolute obligation stock during FY09. As talked about before, confronting extreme parity of installments issues the administration had moved toward the IMF for a US$7.6 billion Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) credit which was affirmed by the IMF board in November 2008. The IMF has likewise acquiesced to administration of Pakistans extra solicitation for US$3.2 billion, which has expanded the complete help to $11.3 billion. The awful and declining financial conditions additionally makes issues in Pakistan remote trade saves. It was $ 14 Billion in June 2007 demonstrating a radical decay of 75.71% by the mid of 2010 to simply $ 3.4 Billion. Preceding the occasions of September 11, 2001, Pakistans economy was trapped in an awful obligation trap. U.S. two-sided help to Pakistan began in 1951. Pakistan, altogether, got a monstrous measure of $2 billion dollars somewhere in the range of 1953 and 1961. On the opposite side, by the mid 1960s, guide came to $400 million every year. At the pinnacle level, we become acquainted with that in the main period of that decade, just United Stated gave 50% of the all out guide Pakistan was accepting; which secured 33% of the advancement financial plan and financed the greater part of the import bill. It was the time by 1982, US was givibg $ 5.1 Billion to Pakistan as help on yearly premise. (Ibrahim, 2009) in his exploration (U.S. help to Pakistan-U.S. Citizens have supported Pakistani debasement) talked about the circumstance deteriorating when authorizations were forced by the G-8 nations on respective and multilateral loaning as a result of Pakistans atomic tests in May 1998 and in this manner in view of the military upset in October 1999. Pakistan had the option to reschedule US $ 3.96 billion of its bi-horizontal liabilities through the Paris Club in 2000. The reschedule was, be that as it may, on transient premise and subject to the IMF understanding, which was being concluded at the time with all its rigid restriction. The post September 11, 2001, occasions by and by carried Pakistan into the spotlight of worldwide geo-vital interests. The most critical advantage which Pakistan achieved vis-Ã -vis its outer obligation issue was the rebuilding concurrence with the Paris Club in December 2001. Under the understanding, the obligation reimbursement period was stretc hed out to a range of 38 years with an effortlessness time of 15 years. This implies Pakistans obligation adjusting liabilities will decay by US $ 2.7 billion somewhere in the range of 2002 and 2004 and as indicated by the State Bank; the net present estimation of outside obligation is relied upon to decrease somewhere close to 27 and 43 percent somewhere in the range of 2002 and 2017. Every one of these issues looked by Pakistan are very disturbing and shows a need of finding a way to take the situation in a controllable mode, as further postpone will make Pakistan float herself into numerous other monetary just as social issues. (Ahmed, 2010) contended that Pakistan must will not pay outside obligation installment and spend a similar sum on help and recovery of individuals influenced from ongoing flood and psychological warfare. He said that 20 Million populaces have affected from the furious flood which are a significant piece of $ 54 Billion remote obligation yet to be taken care of with intrigue. Individuals in Pakistan are as of now confronting joblessness, appetite and most exceedingly awful difficulties and the scene of the flood making huge issues for such a colossal number of populaces is again obliterating. Along these lines, Pakistan is extraordinarily unfit to support its obligation risk. Pakistan spends $ 3 Billion consistently on its obligation overhauling where Pakistans obligation to-GDP proportion has skirted the huge tallness of 61% this financial year. Government is some of the time discussing cutting improvement financial plan and lessens appropriations on the call of IMF. The circumstance as indicated by him is getting all the more severely where Government is looking at imposing flood charge on the needy individuals of Pakistan. Notwithstanding of making such strides, Pakistans government should make genuine strides in the destruction of such issues by cutting military and capital financial plans. (Haider Mullick, 2004) talks about the way that however Pakistan has been a bleeding edge partner to The United States for the war on psychological oppression to check the dangers on the US soil; yet got an entirety of $2.4 billion in remote aidâ [5]â . He further contends that after the fear monger assaults on the WTC on September 11, 2001 a significant number of the rich and created countries considered over the way that outside guide to UDCs has now gone to another marvel with a mix of new need and significance not at all like past occasions. Everything is because of the explanation of such UDCs falling under the control of radical fanatics and devotees which fund poor people and abuse their status of neediness. It is only because of the Pakistans contribution to support the US and NATO powers to crush the Taliban system in Afghanistan and the US are designating gigantic guide in an infusing way like 80s. Be that as it may, the final product could turn out to be a lot of wild. T here can be a budgetary stop in the nation if the US and NATO move out of the Afghan land in next 10 years. Our framework in Pakistan will be so reliant on the guide and awards that when it will be expelled; there is a developing apprehension of over all framework breakdown. He weights on the prompt ne

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Whether cognitive dissonance plays a role in the elections and the voting process

Regardless of whether subjective discord assumes a job in the races and the democratic procedure The subject of the article is whether psychological discord assumes a job in the decisions and the democratic procedure. Intellectual cacophony guesses that individuals who have picked a particular conduct will adjust their perspectives as indicated by such conduct. On the off chance that the conduct is acknowledged to be undesirable or negative later, the individual will be considerably progressively slanted to rehash the conduct and bolster it by changing their demeanor to fit that behavior.Advertising We will compose a custom report test on Whether subjective discord assumes a job in the decisions and the democratic procedure? explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is a significant issue since it enormously influences the aftereffects of the political race and the manner in which individuals see themselves and the legislature. In the event that individuals picked pioneers just because of a lost sentiment of self-esteem or significance of their own solace and s ense of pride, than the pioneers picked don't generally mirror the characteristics of profound quality and equity. This implies individuals select pioneers out of brought down sentiments of own conclusions and subsequently, the entire framework gets silly. The structure that is utilized to contemplate the issue is the factual strategy that will contrast individuals who are qualified with vote, versus the individuals who are not yet old enough, in this manner don't cast a ballot. The result of things to come decisions and inclinations are anticipated to be influenced by the past choice of the up-and-comer. Explicit parts of people are analyzed, all the more especially age, past information on the applicant and general political training, just as enthusiasm for government and efficient condition of the nation. Special perspectives on the individuals from a similar gathering are likewise considered. This kind of research model is invaluable, as it tends to issues that were given little consideration previously. Likewise, the period of casting a ballot has been changed and this additional a lot of populace to the democratic procedure. The creators likewise address the democratic by other racial gatherings and this issue has become a noteworthy determinant. Fake treatment method was utilized in the examination to decide the affecting factors and predispositions of the investigation. Information that utilized was taken from the measurements of past democratic procedures. Casting a ballot numbers from 1978 until year 2000 are being broke down, to decide any examples or anomalies. The National Election Study or NES is being utilized to decide people’s political mentalities, practices and general perspectives towards lawmakers, legislative establishments and races by and large. There were additionally meets led that included individual inquiries. As the assessments of people significantly change, NES takes into consideration an increasingly explicit assurance of feelings towards specific lawmakers. The reliant variable was the measure of individual inclination individuals had towards the president. Various individual attributes of the pioneer that individuals hope to see were additionally included, to give a superior image of what the open perspectives as significant characteristics of a politician.Advertising Looking for report on political culture? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The tables utilized in the investigation show the connection between various social classes and races. Conjugal status, instruction, spot of living arrangement, age, race and inclination to a particular ideological group were considered to show the factual contrast between people’s convictions and practices. Likewise, factors were contrasted concurring with presidential decisions and senatorial ones. The outcomes have indicated that there is a positive connection between's past democratic and fut ure determination of the applicant. Despite the fact that there are confinements and factors that can't be completely controlled, there is reliance which prompts polarization. Further examinations and testing are expected to build the unwavering quality of such investigations.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Blog Archive Beyond the MBA Classroom Rosss Thursday Happy Hours at Scorekeepers

Blog Archive Beyond the MBA Classroom Ross’s Thursday Happy Hours at Scorekeepers When you select an MBA program, you are not just choosing your learning environment but are also committing to becoming part of a community. Each Thursday, we offer a window into life “beyond the MBA classroom” at a top business school. Students at the University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business gather for Happy Hour, which is sponsored by the Ross Student Association (RSA), every Thursday at Scorekeepers, aka “Skeeps,” a watering hole near campus. This sports bar and grill offers cheap drinks, good music, and lots of TVsâ€"especially important when a game is on. (Members of the RSA usually drink for free for the first few hours of the evening.) The casual atmosphere offers an opportunity for MBA students to “unwind, free their minds from assignments and corporate recruiting, and socialize with classmates,” asserts the RSA’s Web site. Happy Hours are occasionally frequented by faculty and often co-sponsored by Ross clubs and organizations. For in-depth descriptions of social and community activities at Michigan Ross and 15 other top MBA programs, check out the  mbaMission Insider’s Guides. Share ThisTweet Beyond the MBA Classroom University of Michigan (Ross) Blog Archive Beyond the MBA Classroom Ross’s Thursday Happy Hours at Scorekeepers When you select an MBA program, you are not just choosing your learning environment but are also committing to becoming part of a community. Each Thursday, we offer a window into life “beyond the MBA classroom” at a top business school. Students at the University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business gather for Happy Hour, which is sponsored by the Ross Student Association (RSA), every Thursday at Scorekeepers, or “Skeeps,” a watering hole near campus. This sports bar and grill offers cheap drinks, good music, and lots of TVsâ€"especially important when a game is on. (Members of the RSA usually drink for free for the first few hours of the evening.) The casual atmosphere offers an opportunity for MBA students to “unwind, free their minds from assignments and corporate recruiting, and socialize with classmates,” asserts the RSA’s Web site. Happy Hours are occasionally frequented by faculty and often co-sponsored by Ross clubs and organizations. For in-depth descriptions of social and community activities at Michigan Ross and 15 other top MBA programs, check out the  mbaMission Insider’s Guides. Share ThisTweet Beyond the MBA Classroom University of Michigan (Ross)

Monday, May 25, 2020

Generalized Anxiety Disorder ( Adhd ) Essay - 1216 Words

Anxiety, or commonly referred to as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is when a person has â€Å"excessive worry about a variety of topics† (Carrol 2014). When a person has generalized anxiety disorder, they process a fear in their mind on different types of issues that are occurring in their everyday life. This disorder can affect a person for a â€Å"period of at least six months† (Carroll 2014). Of the different types of generalized anxiety disorders that people face on a daily basis, mathematics anxiety is a type of generalized anxiety disorder (Carroll 2014). Mathematics anxiety â€Å"is the feeling of worry, frustration, agitation, and fear of failure with regard to taking a math class, completing math problems and or taking a math exam (McMahon 2015). Mathematics anxiety is serious matter that affects students in schools, and can have an ultimate effect on them in their future. With the help of teachers, parents, and classroom ideas, mathematics anxiety can be made less prominent in the classroom for the students who are affected by mathematics anxiety. Mathematics anxiety has been studies for the past â€Å"50 years† (McMahon 2015), because it is a problem that affect many Americans. With all of the studies done, there is still much to be known about it and its effect on students. Mathematics anxiety has been defined by Vahedi and Farrokhi (2011) as â€Å"negative cognitions, avoidance behaviors, and feeling pressured and inadequate in performance that combined interfere with solving mathShow MoreRelatedThe Phobia of Social Anxiety1435 Words   |  6 PagesSocial Anxiety also known as Social phobia was finally added to the list of anxiety disorders in the year of 1986. Social Anxiety Disorder has the earliest onset of almost any mental disorder. Jaret, Peter by definition is â€Å"the fear of interaction with other people that brings on self-consciousness, feelings of being negatively judged and evaluated, and, as a result, le ads to avoidance.† Before it became known as a phobia or an anxiety disorder it was known as a personality disorder. There are manyRead MorePsychological Evaluation Of The Semester Of Spring 20151143 Words   |  5 Pagesa shock to my parents. Their recovery plan consisted of my moving back home, taking easy online classes, and keeping my illness a family secret. Furthermore, I underwent a psychological evaluation that diagnosed me with ADHD, for which I would be medicated, and generalized anxiety, which was overlooked. I was relieved to finally be able to label my symptoms. We tried various dosages of Vyvanse, Ritalin, and Adderall, but nothing seemed to work. I am not quite sure what results I expected, so by myRead MoreAdolescents And Adolescent Multiethnic Populations : Challenges And Opportunities For Enhancing Knowledge And Practice1148 Words   |  5 PagesAnxiety in Children Cooley, M. R., Boyce, C. A. (2004). An introduction to assessing anxiety in child and adolescent multiethnic populations: Challenges and opportunities for enhancing knowledge and practice. Journal of Clinical Child Adolescent Psychology, 33(2), 210-215. doi:10.1207/s15374424jccp3302_1 This article is an introduction to the larger project titled â€Å"Assessing Anxiety in Child and Adolescent Multiethnic Populations†. Cooley and Boyce (2004) present an overview of anxiety symptomsRead MoreAdhd, Whether or Not to Medicate a Child1195 Words   |  5 PagesADHD, Whether or Not to Medicate a Child Samantha Edmondson COM/155 September 21, 2014 Laura L. Griepp ADHD, Whether or Not to Medicate a Child With the diagnosis of ADHD in children becoming such a controversial subject because of the medications that doctors prescribe; parents have difficult decisions to make. My son, T.J., has had ADHD since he was five years old, and has had many trials and tribulations with the medication that his doctor placed him on to help with the issues that comeRead MoreEssay on Severity of ADHD and Anxiety Rise if Both Develop1394 Words   |  6 PagesADHD and Anxiety If someone with ADHD develops anxiety (GAD), then the severities of both are increased, because they coincide with each other making them more powerful. I choose this hypothesis for 2 reasons. One being that ADHD and anxiety are an epidemic in terms of being disorders that is very common within our world. I also have both Anxiety and ADHD along with some of the other members of my family. Over time I have noticed that people with both anxiety and ADHD think differently then thoseRead MoreSymptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety1008 Words   |  5 PagesAnxiety Anxiety, depression, and medications†¦ These are all things we need to take into consideration when thinking about everyday life. Anxiety has become a generalized factor of life and many people suffer from it everyday. Yes, everyone knows what it s like to feel anxious but not like those with anxiety. Different types of anxiety have different types symptoms and causes. Even though every anxiety is different they are all controlled by one thing--you. Anxiety comes in many forms you haveRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Chronic Illness1388 Words   |  6 Pagesparents. Patient and family-centered care model should be applied. Weyandt et al. (2014) stated that â€Å"pharmacotherapy is the primary treatment option for children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD, including college students† (p. 224). Aside from that, the management of asthma and generalized anxiety disorder requires not only medications, but also adopting behavioral lifestyle changes. Medication therapy for asthma focuses on prevention of asthma attacks and stopping acute attacks (Winkelman, WorkmanRead MoreAnxiety, Depression, And Medications1595 Words   |  7 PagesAnxiety, depression, and medications†¦ These are all things we need to take into consideration when thinking about everyday life. Anxiety has become a generalized factor of life and many people suffer from it everyday. Yes, everyone knows what it s like to feel anxious but not like those with anxiety. Different types of anxiety have different types symptoms and causes. Even though every anxiety is different they are all controlled by one thing--you. (National Institute Mental Health) Anxiety comesRead MoreGeneralized Anxiety Disorder ( Gad )999 Words   |  4 PagesGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is one of the most diagnosed mental disorders today, and can often be closely linked to concurrent symptoms or disorders including physiological, behavioral, other anxiety disorders, depression and substance abuse. (Merino, Senra Ferreiro, 2016) (Cacioppo Fregberg, 2013, p. 688). GAD most notably produces symptoms of excessive worry and anxiety related to non-specific risks, which often leads to functional decline both socially and professionally (Roberge etRead MoreMy Life With Anxiety By Susan H. Spence1799 Words   |  8 PagesMy life with Anxiety Ever since I was a child I have dealt with the problems that several anxiety disorders cause. But that was not what I was actually diagnosed with, my actual diagnoses wouldn’t come till I was closer to eleven and several different doctors. But it is of course something that really dictates my life but it also has really given me a lot of issues in my life. Another thing I found out with the fact that as a child I was considered in the gifted area and this also gave way to another

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Vanessa Johnson A Middle Age Adult - 861 Words

Vanessa Johnson was born on August 11, 1957 in New Orlands, Lousiana. She will soon turn 60 years old and will become part of the older adult group. Vanessa is an African American and she is daughter of Eula and Charles Nucholson. Vanessa got married two times with the same person. She married Mr. X for 2 years, got divorced and stayed alone for three years finally she got married again with him and still is. Vanessa has been married for 14 years with Mr. X and are currently living together. She has three daughters and two step sons. As I ask Vanessa about her understanding of her status as a middle-aged adult she states the following: â€Å"The bible tells us that the older women are to teach the younger women and because of that I am to seek for the advice of an older women than me.† As a middle-age adult, Vanessa has experience advice from older women than her and she has tried to help younger women by giving them her own advice. Vanessa believes that at her age she has experienced many things and if she shares her experience with younger women, they will be able to learn from her. Some benchmarks that she shares with other individuals like her is that she has lived a really active life and during this time of life they begin to get grandchildren. Something that she has experienced at this age, but that is non-normative is that she had 6 to 8 major moves within the last 14 years. However, she states that this is because â€Å"the Lord wanted me in different places.† VanessaShow MoreRelatedResearch Proposal5106 Words   |  21 PagesON MALE AND FEMALE CHILDREN AGES 4-11 What Are the Effects of Domestic Violence on Male and Female Children ages 4-11? Candace Williams University of South Carolina Counseling Education Graduate Program Introduction Purpose The purpose of this research proposal is to identify the specific differences in the effects of domestic violence in male and female children ages 4-11. Justification of Proposed Research Child exposure to adult domestic violence and its effectsRead MoreHolistic Approach14986 Words   |  60 Pagesclasses, you presently offer clients countless opportunities to improve physical health. That being said, you may want to consider offering additional services, such as post rehabilitation programs and regular screenings. For example, the Robert Wood Johnson Hamilton Center for Health amp; Wellness, located in Mercerville, New Jersey, offers rehabilitation services, a staff of nurse educators, a health library with computer access and a healthy-cooking kitchen . Screenings are also essential in the preventionRead MoreLeadership Development42674 Words   |  171 Pagesprivate and not-for-profit sectors, organisations of very different sizes, different industrial sectors. It is known that management and leadership is, or could be, carried out by many different kinds of people in terms of diversity categories like age, ethnicity and gender. It is also known that people are involved in management and leadership at different career stages and come to it from differing occupational and educational backgrounds. An extension of the how question 6 concerns the formsRead MoreSadie Hawkins Day and Valentine Grams18321 Words   |  74 Pagescom. According to the CDC, the Salmonella infection is â€Å"usually diagnosed by [a] culture of a stool sample.† The sickness ranges from four to seven days. Salmonella can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children and weak or older adults. If affected, symptoms range from fever, diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain. If not treated the disease can also spread from â€Å"the intestines to the bloodstream and then to other body sites and cause death.† Sophomore Keith Baloran announces theRead MoreHuman Resources Management150900 Words   |  604 Pagesworkers and the legal issues associated with their use. Demographics and Diversity The U.S. workforce has been changing dramatically. It is more diverse racially, women are in the labor force in much greater numbers than ever before, and the average age of the workforce is now considerably older than before. As a result of these demographic shifts, HR management in organizations has had to adapt to a more varied labor force both externally and internally. The three most prominent dimensions of the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Fad2230 Exam 1 Study Guide - 2832 Words

Chapter 1: Why Study Families Other Close Relationships Family: a relationship by blood, marriage, or affection, in which members may cooperate economically, may care for children, may consider their identity to be intimately connected to the larger group. The U.S. Census Bureau Two or more people living together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption. Family of Orientation: the family that you are born into. Family of procreation: the Family you make through marriage, partnering, /or parenthood. Fictive kin: Nonrelatives whose bonds are strong intimate. Marriage: an institutional agreement between persons to publicly recognize social intimate bonds. William Stevens Socially legitimate sexual union Begun with a†¦show more content†¦Describe Examine factors that predict or are associated with Explain the cause-and-effect relationships Examine the meanings interpretations Example: because of research, we know that violence among intimates is a serious and pervasive social problem. Survey: a form of research that gathers information about attitudes or behaviors through the answers that people give to questions. Random Sample: A sample in which every â€Å"person of interest† has an equal chance of being selected into your research study. In-depth interview: a research method that allows an interviewer to obtain detailed responses to questions. Experiment: a controlled method for determining cause effect. Focus group: a small interview of people who are brought together to discuss a particular topic. Observational study: research method that goes into the natural setting observes people in action. Secondary analysis: a research method in which the data were collected for some other purpose but still are useful to the researcher. Quantitative research: research that focuses on data that can be measured

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Analysis and Evaluation of E-Business Strategy

Question: 1. An original question about e-business that would be worth further research (20% of total). This section is concerned only with defining the problem/.question. Include a short paragraph that explains why it is interesting and a page of plan / research method that shows how your question could be answered. Your idea can be interesting for its own sake pure research. Or it might be useful to a specified organisation applied research. 2. A report to a senior manager of a real organisation on one of the following (80% of total). Or propose a topic of your own but get my approval for it before you start work. Clearly identify which option you are answering. Answer: Introduction E- Business is one of the most innovative technological advancement in the present era. The business strategy is making giant organization upside down while utilizing the internet and associated technologies. The internet has established a new business world, which can facilitate their user at any time and any place they want (Huang and Benyoucef 2013). The organizational heads have to put focus on these new innovative technologies for improving their business according to the competitive market. This report is proposing the system architecture for supporting the E- Business. The organization chosen for this aspect is the Primark situated in UK (Primark - About Us. 2016). One research h question has been suggested for the discussing the above phenomenon and making the impact clear of technology in the E-business. In addition to this, this report is comprised of certain aspects: important application, system architecture of E-Business, difference between the current application of Primark and the application those are supposed to be implemented. Research Question and Methodology Research Question What are the technological advancements and system architecture can be implemented in Primark to support E- Business? Justification of the Research Question The research question is based on the technological and system architecture needed for developing the business of Primark. Primark is based on UK. The agenda of the organization is to provide the goods and services to the civilians of the country within low cost. Providing the goods and services at reasonable prices are the core advantage of the organization (Al 2013). This business structure can be improved more with the help of the E- Business architecture and technological development within the organization. The research question is designed to analyze the methods and plans, with the help of which the organization can improve their condition and develop new strategic structure that will benefit their internal and external business environment. Research Methodology The above mentioned research question will be solved through appropriate methodology technique and analysis tool. Secondary resources and inductive approach will be followed to extract appropriate data and information for the selected research topic. In addition, quantitative analysis technique will go perfect with this research work to select appropriate number of respondents who can help to get knowledge about e-commerce implementation in Primark. Part B: Implementation of E-Business in Primark Plan for Implementing E-Business within Primark Implementation of the E-Business within Primark requires the evolving technology and system architecture to be monitored. These aspects will help the organizational head of Primark to know about these technology and system architecture (Primark - About Us. 2016). In addition to this, after identifying the technologies and system architecture, interrelationship of these systems and technologies have to be analyzed. The benefits of the applications are measured by comparing these advancements with the present applications Primark is using. Summary of the Application and Architecture to be used Three- Tier Architecture E-Business structure is nothing but an IT system that should follow architecture to be implemented into any system. Three-tier architecture is manly utilized for any kind of IT system. Figure 1: Three- Tier Architecture (Source: Hannak et al. 2014, pp-310) Previously, the IT systems moved from the mainframe system to the client based system. In this system the graphical user interface (GUI) is located in the client server (Rodriguez et al. 2014). The client server is mainly comprised of three tiers. First tier: GUI is implemented on the fat or thin client in this tier. Fat client is the personal computer and the thin client is the network computer. Middle tier: the processing logic is of the business is discussed in this tier. This tier is operated by the local server (Lapoule and Colla 2016). Third tier: This tier is providing the back end. This comprised of corporate data, the wide database of the company and the file system storage. Technologies Utilized In E- Business The effective implementation of the E- Business strategies requires some IT- technologies to be implemented. These are discussed below: Information Retrieval: Information retrieval tools are utilized to provide Boolean search capabilities for structured and unstructured text collections (Liu 2015). Google, Yahoo etc are the information retrieval tools. Document Management: This system provides an environment for retrieving, storing authoring the documents. Documents may be simple text based or multimedia based documents. Workflow Management: The workflow management system provides the chance to monitor, execute and define the business process. Managing supply chain, operating bank accounts, hiring new employees fall under this category (Patil and Divekar 2014). Important workflow management systems are: FileNet, IBMs FlowMark etc. Groupware: Previously the e-mail was the main source of communication. Now the Lotus note, Microsoft exchange have provided new sources of operating communication. Data Warehousing: Mass customization is new technology for handling the customer demands according to their personal profile (Chen, Pan and Ouyang 2014). Data warehousing is new technology that automatically maintains the mass marketing. This helps to analyze the customer behavior. Web Application Server: Web application server is used to link the back end system. The back end systems are: documents, database that are being transferred by sending HTTP requests. Object-Oriented Middleware: Web application server is classified as the special type of object oriented middleware (Eaton 2013). The selection of the middle ware depends on the needs of the application. Examples of these are: COM, DSOM permit etc. Process Oriented Package-Ware: Automation of the process is done through the workflow management process but for more innovation, standard software packages are being used towards the user interfaces. Java: Java programming is nominated as the core part technical structure of E- Business, as it provide platform independent software development environment. Interfaces of the Applications The three tier architecture introduces the graphical user interface within the client server. The first tier of the structure maintains the GUI within the clients. The middle tier integrates the business process within the system architecture (Fernie and Sparks 2014). These processes involves the front end and back end sub processes. The third tier involves the back end processes with the transactions. Information retrieval is the first step for implementing the technologies needed for the E- Business. Web search engines like Google, Yahoo, Alta Vista provides the information to be utilized in the document management system. Information is searched among the collected documents. Document management is there in the system for distinguishing the various kinds of documents, which are reviewed by the multiple authors simultaneously (Patil and Divekar 2014). This system comprised of the general purpose tools and integrated documents. This document management system is commonly attached with the workflow management system. Workflow management allows the smooth movement of another process while not touching other rapidly changing IT systems. Boolean searching operation utilizes the AND, NOT, OR operations for making relevant search (Hubner, Kuhn and Wollenburg 2016). If the workflow management system follows ad hoc characteristic, then the groupware and messaging system are used. Messaging is used to make proper communication. The asynchronous messaging system provides the exchange of messages among the Arpanet. The document management capability is tested in this platform. Messaging is utilized to understand the demands of the customers by making proper communication with them. This aspect is only possible with the data warehousing technique. The E- Business process introduces the demands of the customers. The mass marketing is done by applying the data warehousing. The web application server is another element of the technological part of the E- Business. The web application server connects the back end systems. The business organization communicates with the vendors by sending the HTTP requests to the system (Huang and Benyoucef 2013). Object oriented middleware, process oriented package ware and Java these three services are used to communicate with the vendor about their problems and demands. In addition to this, these programming languages are used in the platform to act as the coordinator. Java provides the platform independent software support which can act at any platform (Lapoule and Colla 2016). This aspect makes the program more compatible according to the problematic situations. The server of the web applications includes the documents, user objects and the database connections. These web applications allow the database connection to avoid the expensive functions. These connections every time requests a document when it sends a request. The relational data bases are also connected to the server. The enterprise deployment is done through utilizing tens and thousands of user data. Figure 2: Interface of Technologies in E-Commerce (Source: Solaymani, Sohaili and Yazdinejad 2012, pp-250) The Current System and the proposed System to be implemented The conventional business techniques used by the Primark utilizes many technological facilities though these facilities are not enough to improve the E-business strategies within the organization (Shemi and Proctor 2013). Primark uses web service facility to attract more customers and launch their products and services in an innovative way. This aspect may be resolved with the help of the proposed technological development above. The aspects which can be implemented within the business strategies of Primark are explained as follows: App Development of Primark: The application development is becoming very common in E-business. The application of any particular brand makes their products and services always available to their customers in any situation (Carrillo, Vakharia and Wang 2014). This platform can be provided to the customers by utilizing the group/ messaging, workflow management and data warehousing. This process utilizes the user data to make them aware of the new products and keep them linked with their organization. Therefore, the development of application of Primark helps the brand to involve more into the competitive market. E-Mail Subscription: The organization previously did not follow the e-mail subscription to inform their users. This subscription technique can inform the user and customers about the new product and services (Chen, Pan and Ouyang 2014). The techniques utilized in the e- mail subscription are described as follows: The subscriber sends an e-mail to the auto responder. The program is in built in the auto responder allows the request to be subscribed. All the mandatory information is forwarded to the subscribers. E-mail subscriber can any time check for their requirements according to their demands, this can help the company as well as the individual customers to know about their products and services. Platform Independence of the App: The application to make Primark more popular needs the application to be platform independent. The application should be like this that can be operated in any kind of platform. Java is a software platform that will help the applications to be operated in every platform. The Java language compiles to the virtual machine. The virtual machine is typically a CPU that runs the code written on the specific language (Hirt and Willmott 2014). This code enables the executable binary system to be implemented on the virtual machine. The java processors can be utilized to execute the java code. This is most applied for the embedded system in the practical scenario. The JVM offers access to the OS-system. The mentioned techniques for the JVM are utilized for operating the program (Solaymani, Sohaili and Yazdinejad 2012). Platform independence is well maintained with the help of the Java. Benefits of the Application There are several benefits of the technological advancements those Primark wants to implement in their business. These benefits are explained below with respect to the technological implementations: Benefits of Information Retrieval: The structured and unstructured collection of the texts is searched with respect to the information retrieval tools (Colla and Lapoule 2012). The document management system is generally operates the information retrieval tools. Benefits of Document Management System: The document management system provides support for distinguishing the different versions of documents (Eaton 2013). The text document or multimedia documents are the examples of these documents. The complexity is reduced as the manager knows the type of the document. Benefits of Workflow Management: Workflow management helps to sequentially design the process of the work culture for the E- Business (Fernie and Sparks 2014). This aspect provides the process control that is separated from the core business logic. The workflow management has the limited scope for specialized application. Groupware: E-mail facility allows the entrepreneurs to manage the data for their customers according to their demands and specification (Galliers and Leidner 2014). The groupware is concerned with interaction between the customer and Primark. Data Warehousing: The automatic mass market is enabled by the use of the data warehousing technique. Web Application Server: A Web application server allows Primark to know the buying behavior of their customers (Mohapatra 2013). An HTTP request allows the consumers to know about the state of their order or about any activity they are doing in the online sites. Object Oriented Middleware: There are certain sequences of actions that are placed between the transaction brackets of the transaction. The transaction is totally measured with respect to the object oriented middleware. Process Oriented Package Ware: Process oriented package ware are the software packages, that offers the consumers a standard protocol for operating their online site and also helps to search for the desired options. Java: This is the most important and innovative option for the offering the platform independence to the applications Primark is using (Liu 2015). Java allows every applications of Primark to be platform independent. Recommendations Security Improvement: The application of e-commerce improves the security consumer data. Technological advancements improvise this scope. Increment of Sale: E- commerce system can improve the sale of Primark with the help of the technological advancements. Brand Image: The brand image of Primark can be improvised with the help of the technological advancements. Conclusion E- Business has changed the present scenario of the conventional business. There are several limitations in conventional business. E- Business strategy is introduced by the implementation of the technological advancements within the industry. In this report the concerned organization is Primark. Primark wants to implement new technological advancements within their organization for making improvisation in the field of E- Business. The report is discussing about the current technologies that are utilized by Primark in the present scenario in contrast with the description of the new technologies that can be implemented within the organization. In addition to this, the benefits of the concerned technologies are also discussed with respect to the demands of Primark. References Afshar Jahanshahi, A., X. Zhang, S. and Brem, A., 2013. E-commerce for SMEs: empirical insights from three countries.Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development,20(4), pp.849-865. Al, S. 2013. Interpretive research design: concepts and processes. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 16(4), pp.351-352. Carrillo, J.E., Vakharia, A.J. and Wang, R., 2014. Environmental implications for online retailing.European Journal of Operational Research,239(3), pp.744-755. Chen, J.E., Pan, S.L. and Ouyang, T.H., 2014. Routine reconfiguration in traditional companiese-commerce strategy implementation: A trajectory perspective.Information Management,51(2), pp.270-282. Eaton, S. 2013. The Oxford handbook of empirical legal research. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 16(6), pp.548-550. Fernie, J. and Sparks, L., 2014.Logistics and retail management: emerging issues and new challenges in the retail supply chain. Kogan Page Publishers. Galliers, R.D. and Leidner, D.E., 2014.Strategic information management: challenges and strategies in managing information systems. Routledge. Hirt, M. and Willmott, P., 2014. Strategic principles for competing in the digital age.McKinsey Quarterly,2. Huang, Z. and Benyoucef, M., 2013. From e-commerce to social commerce: A close look at design features.Electronic Commerce Research and Applications,12(4), pp.246-259. Hbner, A., Kuhn, H. and Wollenburg, J., 2016. Last mile fulfilment and distribution in omni-channel grocery retailing: A strategic planning framework.International Journal of Retail Distribution Management,44(3), pp.228-247. Lapoule, P. and Colla, E., 2016. The multi-channel impact on the sales forces management.International Journal of Retail Distribution Management,44(3), pp.248-265. Liu, S.U.N., 2015. The Development and Countermeasures of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises B2B E-commerce.US-China Foreign Language, p.608. Malhotra, B., 2014. E-Business: Issues Challenges in Indian Perspective.Global Journal of Business Management and Information Technology,4(1), pp.11-16. Mohapatra, S., 2013. E-commerce Strategy. InE-Commerce Strategy(pp. 155-171). Springer US. Patil, H. and Divekar, B.R., 2014. Inventory management challenges for B2C e-commerce retailers.Procedia Economics and Finance,11, pp.561-571. Shemi, A. and Proctor, C.T., 2013. Challenges of E-Commerce Adoption in SMEs: An Interpretive Case Study of Botswana.Botswana Journal of Business,6(1), pp.17-30. Solaymani, S., Sohaili, K. and Yazdinejad, E.A., 2012. Adoption and use of e-commerce in SMEs.Electronic Commerce Research,12(3), pp.249-263., 2016. Primark - About Us. [online] Available at: [Accessed 11 Aug. 2016].